Thursday, November 30, 2017

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Modern public management theory holds that, as the main body of society, government, like other social institutions, has its own interests and goals. The government is made up of individual individuals whose interests are not necessarily aligned with the interests of the government. Even well-designed policies can be out of shape in the process of execution, not necessarily achieving government goals. Therefore, determine the same product should be provided by the government or private basis, does not depend on who is more selfless in theory, and to see whether it is the exclusive or non-exclusive items. Non-exclusive items should be provided by the government, otherwise no one would provide them, such as infrastructure, defence, etc. Exclusive goods should be privately supplied and more efficient than the government. That's how Adam Smith's invisible hand is so deeply revealed - everyone is trying to use his capital to get the most out of their products. Generally speaking, he did not attempt to promote public welfare, also don't know to improve public welfare, how many, he pursues is just personal happiness, personal interests, but when he did this, there will be a pair of the invisible hand to guide him to achieve another goal, and this goal is by no means he is seeking something. He often promotes social interests because he pursues his own interests, which is more effective than he really wants to promote social benefits.

Education is a special kind of product, which is both exclusive and non-exclusive. It is a semi-exclusive product. Education is exclusive because people can pay for exclusive consumption. Students who pay school fees can enjoy the equivalent of education, and students who do not pay tuition can't enjoy the same education. Education is non-exclusive because, for students of the same school, you accept education without stopping your classmates from accepting education. This is especially true in the Internet age. A student who accepts education through an open online course will not be able to prevent another person from the world from watching the same course video. More importantly, education has positive externalities. People who have received good education will promote social stability and development. Conversely, people who do not receive good education may have a strong anti-social tendency. In this sense, education has certain publicity. Therefore, the government has an obligation to provide the necessary education for those who are incapable of receiving education.

However, as a public product, the government can only meet the basic education needs of ordinary people. If someone can't accept education because of economic constraints, it's the government's responsibility. However, not everyone should accept the same education. Quality education resources are always scarce. Parents, as long as they have the ability, will let their children accept better education. It's competitive. Forcing everyone to accept the same quality education will not be achieved, and will reduce education quality as a whole. Those who think that education should be fully provided by the government of the people don't realize that people are divided into different groups, each family's demand for education is different, what the government can meet the demand of the education of all?

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